The Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas,
with pleasant and satisfaction publishes in to the English language
the work of the revolutionary of the Balkan territory Rhigas Velestinlis.
The work under the title The Revolutionary Scripts includes the
Revolutionary Proclamation, The Human Rights, The Constitution and
the war song Thurios. The previous works have already been translated,
chronologically in the Bulgarian, Romanian; Serbian, Albanian, Russian
and the French language, very soon the German and the Spanish publication
will follow. With these editions Rhigas social and political beliefs
will become familiar to the Balkan and the European territory. These
works will be introduced to the national bibliography of each country
and they will be accessible to the researcher.
One of the main purposes of our Scientific Society is the
study and the promotion of the work of the revolutionary and visionary
Rhigas Velestinlis (1757 - 1798). The works of Rhigas have been
already promoted with the organization of three international congresses
(?a 1986, Ba 1992, Ca 1997). These congresses have also promoted
the work of expert scientists.
With this edition an introductory text is presented about
the work and the life of Rhigas. The purpose is to contribute to
the comprehension of Rhigas revolutionary scripts and of his plans
about the revolution against tyranny. The final aim of Rhigas was
the creation of a democratic state to the Balkan territory, were
all the people will live without discrimination because of their
language or their religion. At the end of the book we present visual
material with pictures and features of Rhigas works in order to
depict his revolutionary activity. We want to point out that the
titles of the Greek bibliography, which are in Subnotes, are translated
in to the English language in order to be understood.
The bibliography about Rhigas in the English language is
very poor. The only detailed information is included in the book
C. M. Woodhouse, Rhigas Velestinlis. The proto-martyr of the Greek
Revolution 1955. The edition is very important because the last
work written about Rhigas was the one of B. E. Edmonds, Rhigas Pheraios,
the protomartyr of the Greek Independence, London, 1890. At the
same time parts of Rhigas Constitution are used by R. Clogg at his
book, The Movement for Greek Independence 1770-1821. A collection
of documents, London 1976, p. 149-163. We believe that our edition
will enrich the English bibliography about Rhigas. We also hope
to contribute to the comprehension of the Constitution and The Human
The Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas
feels the need to express sincere gratitude to the translator of
the Revolutionary Scripts Mr. Vassilis Zervoulakos because with
willingness and disinterestedness he undertook the task to translate
into the English language the difficult indeed political texts of
Rhigas, as well as to interpret the revolutionary war song Thourios.
We believe that with the edition of the Revolutionary Scripts, the
belief that the democratic principle and the administration of the
citizens benefit without the discrimination of language and religion
(article 7 of the Constitution), were visualized two centuries ago
by Rhigas Velestinlis is a reality of today's United Europe.
Dr Dimitrios Karaberopoulos
Chairman of the Scientific Society
of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas
The purpose of this book has two parameters. Firstly to release
the revolutionary scripts of Rhigas, for the first time in a complete
edition in English, and secondly to present Rhigas' personality
through his work.
Rhigas Velestinlis was a compound personality, who tried
in every way to organize a greater revolution at the area of the
Balkans. His final aim was the creation of an independent Democratic
state, with all nations inhabiting in the Balkan Peninsula including
the Turks. He is probably the greatest Greek enlightener. Rhigas
was influenced by the principles of the French revolution and he
tried to spread its ideas to the Greek territory.
The aim of this book is to present all aspects of Rhigas
compound personality, and his effort to spread out the ideas of
freedom with deep respect to the different nationalities which where
about to become a part of his state. Rhigas purpose was the creation
of a representative Democracy with the general name, "Greek
Democracy". He was accused as a nationalist mostly because
of that choice, but in reality, he used the title "Greek Democracy",
because Greek was the most known language of the Balkan Peninsula.
Moreover, the fact that he decided to use a representative system
to his Democracy proves that Greece would have limited representation
in parliament, merely because of its small population.
Today, at the time of globalization, Rhigas ideas as they are presented
through his revolutionary scripts justify those who believe that
the process of globalization can take place, in a way that will
respect the differences among nations. Any other way would be a
terrible disaster to the world's civilization.
Furthermore, the translation of Rhigas work was a difficult attempt,
because of the particular texture of his scripts. Rhigas language
strains linguistic and syntactical distinctiveness. Rhigas writes
with a great enthusiasm and as a result, he leaves his syllogism
unfinished, while he starts new ones. The outcome was a difficult
to understand passage, that created difficulties to the English
Specifically, the translation of Thourios was not an easy
task mainly because of its poetic speech and the absence of sub-notes.
Thourios is a Paean, (war-song), with only one purpose: To tempt
the Greeks and the other nations of the Balkans to fight in order
to gain the utmost prize of freedom. Thurios, was a work without
sub-notes because it described known actions of its time? In addition
to that, Rhigas used a simple language, in an effect to be understood
by the common people. The absence of the sub-notes in addition with
the presence of poetic speech, made the translation even harder.
I believe that the outcome of this effort responds Rhigas
wish to make his fight for freedom known to the hearts and souls
of the nations of the world.
Rhigas Velestinlis 1, a son of local parents, was born in
1757 at Velestino of Magnesia, near the ruins of the ancient city
of Pheres. His birth name was "Rhigas" a common name at
this area of Velestino at Pelion, while as a last name, according
to the habit of scolars of his time he used the name of his birth-town
"Velestinlis" 2. At his birthplace he came in contact
with the ruins of ancient city of Admetus and of Jason of Pheres.
There he probably felt the importance that had to his self- consciousness
the knowledge of the glorious history of his predecessors. But at
his birth-town at Velestinos he must have known the terrifying experience
and the atrocity of the Ottoman apolytarchic rule, something that
he explicitly describes as a sub note to his book "Young Anacharsis"
3: "The common and unjustified murders against Christians that
take place here today were to devastate the entire city except the
fact that the natural beauties of this city impose the people to
endure all suffering in order to die to the same place where their
forefathers died. Anacharsis could not stayed even for a minute
but he left as quick as possible to the inner land of his Skythia".
Being young, thirsty for knowledge, he studied at the school
of Zagora on the eastern side of Mount Pelion, where he came across
the ancient authors, as it can be testified by his autobiography,
a book that can be found at the Greek National Library 4. When he
was about twenty years old Rhigas left Velestino and went to Constantinople
where he learned foreign languages and increased his knowledge near
to the Phanariotes. Later on he was established at Vlachia 5, a
place with a relative degree of freedom, neighboring to Europe.
Important role to the sculpturing thought of Rhigas and to the conception
of his specific revolutionary plan, acted, apart from his studies,
the important events of his times: the Orlov 6 (1770), the war of
the three "Empires" 7 (1787-1792) between Russia, Austria
and Ottoman Empire and the new civic situation after the French
revolution. However, the compound aspects of his personality can
be revealed after the explicit study of his works and his revolutionary
plan. In this way it is concluded that Rhigas Velestinlis is one
of the most important personalities of Modern Greece as well as
of the Balkans: Enlightener, Revolutionary, Martyr, Political Mind,
Military Mind, Nation Rebel and Visionary of a democratic state
at the Balkans.
1. Enlightener, because of his printed and written books. Specifically,
Rhigas appeared to the Greek letters at 1790 with his first two
books. The "School of delicated lovers", is considered
to be the first book from a whole new literature, the prose, first
to the Greek territory. Indeed early in this book, one can see his
pioneered civic and social thought, because he resists to nobility
titles, at his time. He observes with emphasis:
"True nobility exists in the subject of man and not in the
vain titles of his forefathers (as some people take pride for their
titles as if they have come down from the clouds). ðf someone observes
them he will consider them either crazy or foolish"8.
During the same year he printed in Greek his book "Anthology
of Physics"9, where at the introduction he teaches us how to
avoid self-pity and to work for the education of the people. He
"I was not only pleased to morgue the sick situation of my
nation, but I struggled to assist with all my efforts, by translating
from the German and French language the most important aspects of
Natural history, and in order to make them easy to understand I
used partly the method of question and answer between teacher and
Rhigas writes his natural history in a "simple language"10
in order to be understood by the people and in order to fight against
the superstition. He conveys, as we have proved through our research11,
at the pages of his natural history the scientific knowledge of
the French Encyclopedia (1751-1776) by Diderot and D' Alambert.
Moreover he managed to convey the scientific scripts to common Greek
with a fluent and polished language. At his introduction, he also
emphasizes that his target was everybody to understand his writings
and not to exhibit his knowledge for the sake of a minority of educated
people, who wrote to an archaic dialect difficult to understand.
He explicitely notes:
"Since my purpose is to benefit my nation and not to fill my
book with words for the sake of exhibition, I had to express myself
with precision as possible, in order for everybody to understand
and acquire a small idea of the incomprehensible physics".
His final aim was to "redeem the fallen Greek nation",
in order to achieve its previous status in literature and education.
With Rhigas' physics, as we have already mentioned to a
previous study12, for the first time the scientific knowledge of
blood circulation is transferred to a Greek book. It should be mentioned
the contribution of Rhigas to the richness of the Greek language,
by inserting new words and terms, established since then to the
Greek vocabulary, such as; "wind-gauge", "electric-gauge",
"magnetism", "pneumonic artery", "pneumonic
vein", "sensitive", "thrusting" "horizontal"13.
The important year of 1797, Rhigas started the application
of his revolutionary plan. He translated and printed two theatre
works since he had the belief that the educational role of theatre
would be essential to the spiritual maturity of the Greeks. For
that reason he lined up in the 7th page of the Carta of Greece the
picture of the ancient theatre. At "Olympia"14 he numbers
the sports of the Olympic games during antiquity, and in addition
he gives the important information that during his time some of
these sports were still preserved to Thessally as well as in the
entire Greece. Rhigas purpose was obvious: He wanted to connect
the glorious past with the present and to create proportional sentiments
to his readers, very important to the growth of their revolutionary
disposition. Indeed he finds the chance to use the most acute printing
elements of his time to specifically underline for four times the
word "freedom", with an obvious revolutionary meaning.
Also, at the same time, at the beginning of his second theatre work,
"The shepherd girl of Alps", by Marmontel, (1723-1799),
he underlined with emphasis the saying; "The holy love of our
land is nesting to the hurt, and the hurt never grows old",
he wanted to specify the dedication of the Greeks to their land.
2. The Revolutionary. Being a true leader and rebel, Rhigas gave
priority to the psychological preparation of the enslaved Greeks,
in order to undertake weapons and rebel against the Ottoman tyranny.
Firstly he wanted to raise their moral and then to give them the
urge to start a rebel war, where even their life could be sacrificed.
He also tried to give an idea about the great legacy, they had from
the ancient Greeks, to his compatriots, the magnitude of the Greek
cities, the bravery, the economical, and political power of their
As it is ascertained through his works and the interrogative
scripts, Rhigas used the two most important means of communication:
the picture and the music. Through these means he could transfer
to the slaves the messages he wished, in order to have better results
to the accomplishment of his revolutionary plan. In particular he
A) As a supervisory material, the picture of Alexander the Great,
the book Young Anacharsis and the Carta of Greece.
B) For music the song Thourios, and the Patriotic Hymn.
About his revolutionary method and the tactics Rhigas used,
revealing are the information from the report of Pergen, the Austrian
minister of police:
"As a preparatory mean towards this purpose, (the military
and the revolutionary), Rhigas created and propagated an ultra revolutionary
song, Thurios, he prepared cartas, (maps) of Greece and the bordering
regions, of about 12 sheets. He also printed a great number of copies.
He translated into Greek the one fourth of the book Anacharsis with
political notes and the moral Tripod. He also published pictures
of Alexander the Great, with observations about his bravery.... his
aim was to demonstrate to the Greeks the contradiction between their
past and their present situation"15.
By implementing the specific revolutionary plan, in 1797
Rhigas prints a sheet (44.7cm x 29 cm), with the picture of Alexander
the Great16, surrounded by the pictures of his four generals, Antigonos,
Seleucos, Kassandros and Ptolemy. Also, at the same time four pictures
with the achievements of Alexander the Great are included: "1.
The triumphal entrance to Babylon, 2. The escape of the Persians
from Granicos river, 3. The defeat of Darius and, 4. The family
of the defeated King at Alexander's' feet". Also, Rhigas underlines
that Alexander the Great "destroyed the empire of the Persians
in Asia and Africa".The passages of this edition are in Greek
and French probably in order to be read by foreigners and Phil/hellenes
who could speak either Greek or French17.
Furthermore, in order to praise the bravery of the Macedonians
and encourage the slaves, Rhigas addresses in the Patriotic Hymn
to Alexander the Great
|Alexander step out
from the grave and see
again the Macedonians
how brave they will be
the way they win their enemies
with bravery in the fire",
Meanwhile it would be mentioned that in the time of Napoleon
Bonaparte's triumph (he had already destroyed the empire of Venice,
and when everyone praised him as liberator), Rhigas neglected to
write not one word not a verse, like other Greeks did18. On the
contrary during that time he was publishing the picture of Alexander
the Great emphasizing his bravery and he offered him as an ideal
to the Greeks, in order to prove to them that in order to gain their
freedom they must not expect help from the foreigners.
He also translated the greatest part of the forth volume
Young Anacharsis, a work of the French author J. J Barthelemy, (1716-1795),
and published it in 1797. The publication was enhanced with many
subnotes and observations, where he tries to underline to the Greeks
their ancient glory and their important descent. It is important
to mention the way the interrogative authorities of Austria judged
the value of this Greek edition, an edition that points out the
spirit of freedom for the Greeks. The minister of police Pergen
wrote to the Emperor Francisco, in December 29, 1797: "Young
Anacharsis seems to be the most appropriate mean to clarify to the
Greek nation the past importance of Greece".The minister explicitely
continues with the importance of the book that Rhigas chose, in
order to awake the slaves. For that reason he prohibited just the
Greek translation, and not the editions in French and German: "All-thou
the book "Anacharsis traveling" may not be suspended in
the French and German translation, things are different for the
Greek translation, which it seems to be destined only for one purpose,
to rise the spirit of freedom to the Greeks. For that reason I ordered
the police to confiscate the already pressed or under press volumes
of this book"19.
Rhigas was the first one to write against the malevolence
of the German Philosopher Corneille de Pauw, (1739-1799), whom at
"The history of Greece", (Recherches philosophiques sur
les Grecs, Berlin 1788) writes against Greeks of Rhigas' time and
he also objected the beauty of Tempi, although he had never visited
Greece. Rhigas characteristically notes that "Mr. Pauw should
leave his northern tutorial school, and become an eye witness of
the region of Tempi and then he will agree to testify. Like Tot
did, their beauty over every other region. And if he decides not
to believe the eye-witnesses, and instead he bickers, then he is
A third important mean to promote his aims was the protraction
and publication of the Charta (map) of Greece21. It is consisted
of twelve sheets which if united to the appropriate position; they
form one big map of Greece and the Balkan territory, of about two
meters. The edition impressed the experts in map-making and the
educated Greeks. Indeed, as the Austrian minister of police wrote
to the Austrian Emperor, Rhigas with his map wanted to prepare his
revolutionary plan and to demonstrate "the magnificence of
Greece"22. He enriched it with topographic diagrams of important
historical events and places of antiquity: Olympia, Sparta, Salamina,
Delphi, Plataies, Thermopyles. He also included the topographical
diagram of his birth city Velenstino23, where he records the antiquities
he had seen and touched at his prime. At the same time he offered
the message that everyone should set out the historical evidence
of his land24.
Rhigas starts the edition of his Carta with a ground plan
of Constantinople, (in Vienna, in 1796), along with six coins of
the city on the first page of his map. The first 3 are of the ancient
and the other 3 of the Byzantine era. But the interesting aspect
is the picture of the sleeping lion, having the symbols of Sultans
authority at his back and Hercules' bat lying horizontally at his
feet. With this symbolic representation Rhigas offers a message
of optimism to the enslaved Greeks and the other nation of the Balkans.
He wants to say that when they wake-up from that situation, with
his revolutionary preaching, they will be thrilled, take the weapons
to devastate the Ottoman tyranny, and create to its position the
democratic state, the New Political Administration.
We must emphasize that "Hercules bat" is an important
evident to Rhigas' revolutionary thought, with symbolic dynamics
over the centuries, while the balance of powers changes. First there
was the Persian power with the double axe and then the Ottoman with
the half moon. So, the Greek power is symbolized with the bat, and
strangles over the centuries with the barbarians. At his Carta Rhigas
collocate both the bat and the axe broken at the see-battle of Salamis
and Mycale and to the battles of Marathon and Grannicos river. He
also commemorates the bat on the coins of Zacynthos, Thebes, Konstantzas,
Mangalias, Nicopolis, and Ftiotis of Thessally. Also, using the
bat he symbolizes the Greek spiritual powers, (over the margin of
his tenth sheet). Then, he alphabetically reports 114 names of great
men of antiquity, who lived over several periods, from the 11th
B.C. and until the 1st A.D. The first name he mentions was that
of Admitus of Pheres, this way he tried to so to the Greeks the
centennial historical spiritual route of their forefathers.
With these representations at his Carta Rhigas gives diachronically
importance to Hercules bat. With that he demonstrates not only the
ancient Greek power but he extents its importance to his age. Evidently,
to his Constitution he proposes as a symbol the three-colored flag
and Hercules bat.
About the Carta, Rhigas' historian Leandros Vranoussis specifically
notes the following: "Real monument of its time, this inspired
work of Rhigas, is a publishing miracle. It is a work of inexpugnable
patience and diligence. A work of amazing polymath that took many
years of study. That work came to depict with a vivid way the extent
and magnitude of the ancient and modern Greece, and to write down
the ancient Greek names side by side to the modern ones. It also
came to remind all the historical evidence...and the relics of the
glory of the ancestors, and to teach to the enslaved Greeks "what
they lost, what they have, and what they should have". It is
a real encyclopedia for the knowledge of the homeland"25.
In order to achieve the transmission of his revolutionary
message and to animate the slaves to rebel, Rhigas, except his visual
material, also used music. Specifically he composed a war song under
the title "Thourios", beginning with the verse "Until
when lads". Let it be noted that the word Thourios, derives
from the verb ?UOUI?, and it means turbulent, storming and martial.
It was not in use at his time and Rhigas borrowed it from the Attic
poets26. Since that time, it is recorded to the modern Greek vocabulary
and became well known, synonymous of revolution.
Thurios is written in simple words, in order to be clear
by the people without the need of sub-notes and explanations like
in other compositions of his time. Thourios spread very fast in
the form of hand notes27. It crossed mountains and valleys, cities
and villages, lands and seas of the Balkan area encouraging the
slaves to the Great War fight28. Rhigas underlines the importance
of freedom, as the greatest commodity of human, even above life
itself. He declares that it is better to live one hour of freedom
than forty years of slavery and imprisonment. He wrote Thourios
having the experience of his forty years. He condensed the bitterness
and the fury of Greeks against tyranny, over the centuries:
|"It's better for an hour
we live our life free
than living forty years in bondage and in jail",
To this verses he relates tragically the woefully situation
of the slaves, the uncertainty for their life and property by the
peremptoriness of the Ottoman rule:
|"Gallant commanders, popular
and masters all they died by an unjust sword;
and countless so many, and Turks and Greeks,
they lost their life and treasures without any cause",
(Thourios verses 17-20).
Like a true rebel, he also tries to unite people of the
Balkans to take the arms and to fight the holy war of revolution
against the common tyrant. For that reason he declares:
Armenians and Greeks,
blacks and whites all with the same fling,
for freedom the sward let's all gird
and everyone should hear that, brave we will be",
(Thourios verses 45-48).
In the same spirit Rhigas adds to the article 34 of the
Human Rights an example about the co-operation of the nations belonging
to his state: "The Bulgarian should move towards to help the
Greek when he suffers and vise versa and both of them for the Albanian
and the Vlach".
Furthermore, Rhigas, at his revolutionary work, used the
psychological element in order to attain his purpose. He makes use
of the oath, a tactic that is going to be applied by the followers
of the "Society Friends" and the fighters of 1821. He
makes the enslaved to oath to their decision to rebel, with a heavy
price if they brake it:
|"My oath if I brake, let's
sky be in glow,
to burn me and become like a smoke!",
(Thourios, verses 39-40).
He also had to destroy the legend and the commonly believed
rumors that the Ottoman troops were undefeatable, and to summon
in this way the moral of the enslaved. This is the reason why he
brings the certain example of the "Girzialendes"29, who
were rebel at the region of Thrace. He shouted out loud that the
Sultan is not so strong as the slaves believe:
|"Never to consider that
he is strong
the same like the rabbit his hurt trembles and strikes.
Three hundred braves made him to see
That he can not with cannonballs to beat them in the field",
(Thourios, verses 111-114).
Rhigas, at his Thourios, addresses a call to the Greeks
who went to live abroad because of slavery. He invites them to return
and fight for freedom, now with the start of the revolution, pointing
out that it is brave if someone dies for his country:
|"All those because of tyranny
went to foreign land,
let everyone now return back to his motherland;
For how long an officer, they're to foreign Kings;
Come back become a pillar of your own kin.
It's better for the country someone to be lost",
(Thourios, verses 49-50, 55-57).
Furthermore, Rhigas at his Thourios underlines the bravery
of his predecessors about freedom, and he brings them as an example,
in order to be followed:
|"Like our forefathers'
fought like the beasts
for freedom in the fire bravely they leaped,
the same way brothers, let's take for once
the arms and brake free from bitter slavery!",
(Thourios, verses 116-120).
Inside the verses of Thourios someone may find the
political beliefs of Rhigas: He said that anarchy is a form of tyranny,
|"Because anarchy alone
like slavery resembles",
(Thourios, verses 27).
He declares his ideas about the freedom of religion,
|"Freely in his faith everyone
(Thourios, verses 43).
About justice and above all freedom at the last verses of
his Thourios he said
|"And in justice let the
and free to live like brothers all of us in this land!",
(Thourios, verses 124 and 126).
Furthermore Rhigas Velestinlis is a realistic rebel for
one important reason. He prepared his movement, for the planned
revolution of the Greeks and of the other Balkan nations, with their
own power and not with the assistance of the powers of the "East"and
the "West" of his time. He knew very well that the foreign
powers would support their own interests. For that reason his Revolutionary
Scripts, at the Revolutionary Declaration, at Thourios, do not ask
for the help of the great powers to the planned revolution. Unfamiliar
tactic found for the first time. Since then the enslaved looked
on to the help of the foreign powers in order to brake free from
the tyranny. This conception of Rhigas was probably the result,
of his historical knowledge and his experiences by the recent conditions,
after the war of the "three empires": Sistov, August 4,
1791 and Iassy, January 9, 1792, Austria and Russia with the Ottoman
3. Political Mind. Rhigas Velestinlis proved to be a political
mind as someone may observe by his revolutionary work "New
Political Admimistration"30. He was aware of the diplomacy
of his time and the importance of the psychological factor as important
parameters to the outcome of the revolutionary movements. That is
why he had foreseen before the beginning of the revolution to prepare
the Revolutionary Proclamation, where he presented the right of
the armed revolution against the authoritarian power of the Sultan.
In this way he created the right and the legitimacy of the revolutionary
movement, in order to be in he position to ask for political recognition
by the other nations. This act of Rhigas, (having already prepared
the revolutionary proclamation), proves indeed that he was seriously
prepared for his revolution, as well as that he had created the
legal and political aspect of his movement.
Afterwards, he had the precaution to create in a time of
slavery and tyranny the first memorandum of association of the Balkan
area under the name New Political Administration, where he included
the human rights and the constitution. He believed that anarchy
is a form of tyranny31 That is why he tried to create the memorandum
of association, before going down to Greece. Thereby the revolutionary
and the other Balkan nations could have an effective and workable
plan in order to govern democratically the new state, which was
to replace the Ottoman authoritarian rule.
The new political government of Rhigas declares the equality
of the citizens against the law, the private and national freedom,
freedom of the press, the security of citizens, the right of ownership,
abandonment of slavery, the opposition to violence and inequity,
e. t. c. However Rhigas added many of his own scripts to the French
Constitution of 1793, which he translated and had as a norm. Specifically
he mentions the obligatory training not only of the boys but of
the girls as well (Human Rights, article 22). An arrangement, which
is added to a constitution for the first time, is the military training
of women. He can be considered as the introducer of the equality
of men and women, of his time. He introduces the protection of the
citizens by loan-sharking, (Human Rights, article 35) the defense
of freedom by the ones who make an attempt against it e t c. and
furthermore he underlines that the democratic citizens should be
actively part of the commons and they should defend the democratic
institutions and consider this as an obligation "of the most
sacred of all debts". (Human Rights, article 35).
He suggests the co-operation of nations in order to achieve
stability and progress in the democratic society of the Balkan area.
Therefore, he points out, that:
"The Bulgarian must move to the help of the Greek when he suffers
and vise-versa and both of them for the Albanian and the Vlach",
(Human Rights, article 34).
With his Constitution Rhigas managed to attach to the Greek language
the new legal, political terms, economical terms and furthermore
to attach the new words and terms which for the first time are recorded
to the Greek vocabulary: "social legislation", "polytarchy",
"voter", "inspector". "Appoint", "nomination",
"denomination", "security", "vouch",
"legislative body32", "constituent", "procunation"33.
Rhigas' interest to construct a Constitution for the enslaved,
who were to rebel and create the new political reality, ranges his
undergoing plan to the category of a revolution instead of that
of an outbreak, where usually there is no further care for the future
path of the rebels.
Another evident that depicts the political thought of Rhigas
was the fact that he had the providence to prepare a political map,
dividing his state in administrative areas of toparchies and counties,
he wanted to create after the revolution in order to be able to
conduct ballots and elect inspectors and representatives. Specifically
he printed for this purpose a great 12-sheet "carta",
which merely was a political map of his state, with borders, and
political division in toparchies and regions, like our recent research
proved. Rhigas34 created such a great map of the Balkan area for
the first time.
The democratic state of Rhigas
After the predominance of Rhigas' revolution, in the place
of the authoritarian Ottoman rule, he planned to create his New
Political Administration, the new order of things in the Balkans,
by applying the Democratic memorandum of Constitution and the Human
Rights. His standards were the French Revolution and the ancient
Athenian Democracy. For that reason, he names his state, "Greek
Democracy". He supported the democratic reforms at the new
political situation and not in the inherited power. After the revolution
he were to proclaim elections for the nomination of elective representatives,
the congressmen, who were to be proportionally elected out of every
province of his state.
Concerning the objections that have been expressed, that is, Rhigas
wanted the Greeks to have the prime position in his state, because
of the name "Greek Democracy"; synoptically we can say
that Rhigas' belief for the sanction of representative democracy
gives an answer to this objection. The Greeks were to be a small
minority and therefore their proportional representation in the
parliament of the state would be limited.
As far as Rhigas' belief is concerned, he proposes as official
language of his state the Greek language instead of the predominant,
until then, turkish language. We could say that he proposed that
because of a realistic tactic and not out of willfulness. That was
because the Greek language was the prevailing one in the Balkan
territory, as the language of commerce and communication and further-more
"as the easiest language to be studied and conceived",
as Rhigas himself noted to article 53 of his Constitution. On the
other hand at his Constitution he establishes the respect for the
faith and language of all nations, part of his state.
At the article 7 of his Constitution he emphatically stresses that
the dominant people of the state after the revolution will be all
the inhabitants "without exemption of religion and dialect,
Greeks, Bulgarians, Albanians, Vlachs, Armenians, Turks, and every
other nation". It is impressive the fact that Rhigas wants
to include in his state all nations inhabiting in this area, even
the Turks, because they also suffer under the authoritarian rule
of the Sultan, as he stresses at his Thourios too. (Thourios, verses
4. Military mind. Rhigas knew that without the military success
of his revolution it would had been impossible to realize the fall
of the Ottomans despotism as well as to gain the beloved freedom
and to create a democratic state. For that reason while planning
and preparing the revolution he had to provide for A) the military
training of the Greeks and B) the beginning of the revolution with
preparation and mastermind planning.
A. Rhigas knew that the only seasoned soldiers were the
Maniots and the Suliots and the scattered guerillas. The majority
of people were not trained at war tactics. Therefore it would be
impossible for the rebel population of the slaves to fight the trained
troops of the Sultan, if they were not trained in the modern war
tactics. For that reason he made provision before he coming to Greece
to translate a basic field manual of the military technique of the
famous Austrian general von Khevenh?lller, (1683-1744), the "Military
handbook". It would have been the basic manual for the training
of the rebels to the war tactics. Furthermore, the military training,
according to the instructions of the famous European general, would
have positive psychological effect to the enslaved, which were to
rebel. It would vitalize their moral, since at the war they were
going to start they would have the same training as the opponent
military forces of the Sultan.
By that action Rhigas proves that he was longsighted and
a military mind. It is indisputably verified through the writings
of an Anonymous Greek, in 1806, at his work "Greek Prefecture",
the need to publish a book with military rules. Explicitely notes
that "the art of weapons is intensive and a written work, not
small, is needed about it, because the Greeks have a grate need
of it. And there is a time that a patriot must create it in order
for everyone to learn how grate the art of war is"35. Rhigas,
since 1797, in order to begin his revolution he was long sighted
to translate and publish a book of military training about the art
of war for the enslaved rebels.
B. About the military planning of his revolution, it is important
to clarify the information we derive from the interrogative documents.
He had programmed the explosion of his revolution to start by the
armed Greek population of that time, who were the Maniots and the
Suliots. More specifically after his going-down to Greece he planned
to go to Mani and proceed with the revolution at the Morea. After
that, along with the parallel military training of the Greeks to
the art of the war, according to the "Military handbook",
he would move towards the Suliots, and like a bow he would move
to the rest of Greece and to the rest of the Balkan nations36.
This ordnance survey revolutionary tactic of Rhigas proved
right with the predomination of the Greek revolution at 1821. The
Greek revolution was accomplished at Morea, and not where it was
originally started, at the bordering on the Danube territories,
that Rhigas knew very well, because he lived there. This is one
more evident that demonstrates his military skills and military
5. Martyr. Been accused that he planned a revolutionary project
for the distraction of the Ottomans tyranny and freedom of Greece
and the other Balkan nations, he was arrested and driven to prison.
With chains to his arms and legs, according to the relative papers,
he was tortured for six months without to stand a trial from the
Austrian justice37, because it was not possible to create any accusation
against him. So, he was delivered from the Austrians to the Turk
Pasha of Belgrade. Finally he was strangled in June 1798 at the
tower of Neboija at Belgrade, which stands at the side of Danube
river, along with his seven companions. Being faithful at his duty
and the ideals of freedom and to the "Human Rights".
6. Leader of national revolution. Rhigas is described as a leader
of national revolution because with his Thourios (war-song), "Until
when lands", his Carta (his map) and his Constitution he offered
a very important help to the upheaval of the enslaved Greeks, in
order to rebel. He lifted their moral and proved to them that only
with their own powers they could gain freedom. Furthermore he showed
them the "way" towards this cause as General Macrygiannes
points in 1836, "After many centuries Rhigas Velenstinlis cultivates
the seed of freedom to the Greeks and he helps them by leading them
towards their emancipation. The Greeks lifted and exhorted by Rhigas
speeches started fighting for freedom"38.
7. Visionary of a democratic state at the Balkan area. Through
the revolution he prepared for the enslaved Greeks and the other
Balkan nations, Rhigas Velenstinlis dreamed to establish a "New
Political Administration", his democratic state in the place
of the old Ottoman domination. All the enslaved people "without
exemption of religion and language", as he points to the 2nd
article of his constitution, are going to be a representative state
under the name: "Greek Democracy", because that was the
political ideal of the civilization of the classical years, unique
to the history of the centuries and a part of the tradition of the
people. Democracy was for Rhigas an all human ideal with multi-natural
Every citizen of the new state would be equal against the
law, and they would enjoy religious freedom and respect of their
language39. The people who were to be a part of this democratic
state would enjoy the benefits of the democratic administration
with respect for their life and their property. This is a vision
that hopefully in our days, and after two centuries, tends to become
Rhigas Velestinlis was a compound personality and had planned
a certain revolutionary project concerning the revolution of the
Greeks and the other Balkan nations, with ultimate purpose the shake
of slavery and the triumph of freedom and the creation of a democratic
society. In the beginning, he wanted to rise the moral of the slaves
with the use of pictures and music. By the time he was preparing
his plan he managed to avoid the shadowing of the superb organization
of the Austrian police, and to receive a passport in order to leave
Austria. But, before crossing the borders to Triest, he was betrayed
by an upstart Greek merchant. Rhigas conceived a specific military
plan for the start and the expansion of his revolution. He had also
the ability to be provident enough to plan the creation of a democratic
state in the Balkan area, with the cooperation of its nation. Synoptically
it is a fact that Rhigas Velenstinlis is one of the most important
personalities of the Greek and the Balkan area: Enlightener, Revolutionary,
Political mind, Military mind, Martyr, leader of national revolution
and Visualizer of a democratic state at the Balkan territory.
Dr Dim. Karaberopoulos
President of Scientific Society of
1. About the life and work of Rhigas follow the selective bibliography:
Leandros Vranoussis, Rhigas, Basic Library, No 10, Athens .
L. Vranoussis, "The flag, the colors and the shield of the
"Greek Democracy" by Rhigas", Athens, 1992. Photocopy
from the 8th book of the Heraldic and Geneologic Greek Company,
page 347-388. Ap. Daskalakis, Rhigas' system of Goverment, Athens,
1976. A. Daskalakis, Revolutionary plans and martyrs end, Athens,
1979. S. Lambrou, Apocalypses concerning Rhigas' martyrdom, Athens
1892. N. Pantazopoulou, Sudies about Rhigas Velestinlis, Scientific
Society of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas, 2nd edition, Athens
1998. C. M. Woodhouse, The protomartyr of the Greek revolution (Limni,
Evia, Greece 1995) and Greek translation, N. Nikoloudis, Athens
2. About the name and descent of Rhigas Velestinlis refer to Leandros
Vranoussis, Rhigas, idem page 266, and subnoted 1. Dimitrios Karaberopoulos,
Name and descent of Rhigas Velestinlis, Scientific Society of Studies
Pheres-Velestino- Rhigas publications, Athens 1997, 2nd edition,
3. Refer to "Young Anacharsis", Vienna 1797, p. 133.
4. Refer to Leandros Vranoussis, "Unknown manuscripts of young
Rhigas", Hypereia, Vol 2, records of the 2nd conference "Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas"
(Velestino 1992), Athens 1994, p. 563-576.
5. At "Young Anacharsis", 1797, p. 295, at a sub-note
he writes that by 1798 he were to "Girgiovon" of Vlachia.
6. "Russia and Turkey had been at war since 1768. The Russian
Empress, Catherine the Great, had deliberataly spread the war into
the Aegean in 1770 by sending the Orlov brothers to provoke a Greek
rising. The rebellion was brutally crushed by the Sultan, Abdul
Hamid, who then ordered the extermination of the Greek population",
W. C. Woodhouse, Rhigas Velestinlis. The proto-martyr of the Greek
Revolution, 1995, p. 8.
7. Rhigas refers "the present war of the three empires"
at the dedication of his book "Anthology of Physics",
Vienna, 1790, p. Aa.
8. Rhigas Velestenlis, School of delicate lovers, Vienna, 1790,
re-edition Athens 1971, by P. Pistas, p. 186, A. Hourdakis, Pedagogia
and Enlightenment in the "School of delicate lovers" by
Rhigas Velestinlis, published, Athens 1999.
9. Refer also to Rhigas Velestinlis "Anthology of Physics",
Vienna 1790, photo-mechanic re-edition with the addition of index
by Dim. Karaberopoulos of the Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas,
Athens 1991 and 3rd re-edition Athens 2000.
10. The "simple style" of Rhiga's Physic was followed
by Kon. Koumas, Kon. Vardalachos and Dim. Darvaris at their physics
11. Refer to our studies, Dim. Karaberopoulos, "Le Floril`ege
de Physique de Rhigas Velestinlis et l' Encyclopedie. Premi`ere
identification d' un mod`ele" Bulletin de Liaison No 12 (Centre
d' Etudes Balkaniques Inalco, Paris-Decembre 1994, p. 129-139, and
"The French Encyclopedia a prototype of Rhigas "Anthology
of Physics", The Eiranistis, vol. 21, 1997, p. 95-128.
12. Refer to Dim. Karaberopoulos, "Medical knowledge of Rhigas
Velestinlis at his work "Anthology of Physics"",
Hypereia, vol. 1, Proceedings of the 1st conference "Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas",
(1986), Athens 1990, p. 457-499.
13. Refer to Dim. Karaberopoulos, "The French ...", p. 127.
At some time the vocabulary of Rhigas must be drown up, in order
to present the richness of the language in his work as well as,
the number of new words, he introduced to the Greek language. About
"Anthology of Physics", which is reedited by the Greek
Parliament, a new study is being prepared by Costas Petsios.
14. Refer to Rhigas Velestinlis, Moral tripod, Vienna 1797, "Preface",
p. 3-4, photomechanic re-edition with the addition of index by Dim.
Karaberopoulos of the Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas,
15. Refer to K. Amantos, Unpublished scripts about Rhigas Velestinlis,
Athens 1930, and photo-mechanic edition by the Scientific Society
of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas, with the addition of index (Dim
Karaberopoulos), Athens 1997, and p. 179-181.
16. Refer to Maria Mantouvalou, Rhigas at the steps of Alexander
the Great, published by Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velenstino-Rhigas,
Athens 1996. The Historical Ethnological Society of Greece, Athens
1998, re-publish the picture of Alexander the Great, from the original
edition of Rhigas, Vienna 1797, a new edition is been prepared by
the Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas.
17. It must be mentioned that it is the only work of Rhigas written
in a foreign language exempt Greek.
18. Refer to Adamantios Korais, War song, (OUI· OIAIEUU‹UEOO), 1800,
p. 11, photo-edition of the Center of Modern Greek Research /E.I.E,
Athens 1983. Also, Christophoros Perrhairos, A praised hymn from
all Greece to chief-general Bonaparte, Corfu 1798, photo-edition
by the Center of Research of Medieval and Modern Greece, by the
Academy of Athens, Athens 1998.
19. Refer to K. Amantos Unpublished scripts... p. 33-35.
20. Rhigas Velestinlis, Young Anacharsis, vol. 4, Vienna 1797, sub
note p. 149-151.
21. Refer to George Laios, "The maps of Rhigas. Study of the
original sources", Bulletin of the Ethnological Historical
Society of Greece, vol. 14, 1960, p. 231-312, and offprint. Dim.
Karaberopoulos, "The map of Greece by Rhigas. The original
new evidence", to the Map of Rhigas, re-edition of the map
by the Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas, (ed.
Dim. Karaberopoulos) with the support of the Academy of Athens,
Athens 1998, p. 13-90.
22. Refer to K. Amantos, unpublished scripts p. 33. We observe that
Rhigas managed to mislead the Austrian police and to receive for
six months permission to print twelve sheets of his map, he covered
the real purpose of his edition, the publication of a political
map of his state, divided in regions and toparchies, important tool
for the elections he prepared after the domination of his revolution.
23. Refer to Evang. Kakavogiannis, ""The ground plan of
Pheres" by Rhigas Velenstinlis from the archeological point
of view", Hypereia, vol. 1, proceedings of the 1st conference
"Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas", (Velestino 1986), Athens 1990,
p. 423-449. Indid it is supported by the author that Rhigas must
be considered as the first archaeologist of modern Greece.
24. Probably, Rhigas in order to record the historical evidence
of his birth town, he probably followed the instructions of his
co-patriots Dan. Filippides and Greg. Konstantas, they proposed
as the "scholars", following their example, to write about
their home town, in order to gain a , "topographical plan of
our land, a very important and useful matter to all of as".
Refer to Dan. Filippides -Greg. Konstantas, Modern geography, Vienna
1791, re-edition with the assiduity of Aik. Koumarianou, Athens
1971, p. 102-103.
25. Refer to Leandros Vranoussis, Rhigas, Basic Library no. 10,
Athens , p. 49.
26. Aischilou, Seven before Thiebs 42, Persians 73, Agamemnon 112,
Eumenides 627. Sophocles, Aias 212, 612. Aristophanes, Hippies 757,
27. An element that demonstrates the spread out of Thourios is the
fact that it was included in the collection of Claude Fauriel, Chants
populaires de la Gr`ece Moderne, Paris 1825, vol. Ba, p. 20-28.
Explicetely P. Kitromilides, Greek enlightenment. Political and
social ideas, ‚a. edition, Athens 1999, p. 575, note no. 66, he
observes about Thourios that "it's addition to a collection
of popular poems is characteristic of it's vast spread out and it's
embodiment to the Greek popular cultural tradition".
28. The Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas published
in 1997 a CD recording with five traditional music themes of Thourios,
performed by Christos Kyriacopoulos and his chorus "Byzantine
beehive". Mr. Kyriakopoulos points that the five motifs are
the proof of the vast spread out of Thourios to the Greek area and
it's version to the different music idioms of every land.
29. Rhigas talks about them, even at his Carta, page 8, east of
Strymonas river, at Paggeos mountain, were he writes relatively
"Hear is the nest of the Guirzialendes". We mention that
the Newspaper of Poulious' brothers at Vienna in the page of July
17th 1797 writes about "Grintzalides", that "Devlety
[Sultan] decided their total destruction".
30. A very important fact to the creation of Rhigas political and
social ideas, was the translation of the work of Montesquieu, The
spirit of the laws, (De l' Espirt des Lois), as he mentions at the
end of his book, Anthology of Physics, 1790. That evident is the
proof of his early interest about the democratic administration
of the state.
31. "Because anarchy resembles slavery", Thourios, verse
32. The term can be found at the following, "two powers considered
important to the political administration, the legislative and the
governing", to the book of the brothers Kapetanakis, General
Introduction of Geography, Vienna 1816, vol. Ba. p. 335.
33. Refer to Stef. Koumanoudis, Induction of new word, Athens 1900,
re-edition 1980. Also Refer to the note of the subnote no. 13, about
new terms, that Rhigas introduces to the Greek language.
34. Refer Dim. Karaberopoulos, "The Carta of Greece by Rhigas.
The standard and new evidence", at The Carta of Rhigas, re-edition
of the carta by the Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velenstino-Rhigas
(by Dim. Karaberopoulos), Athens 1998, p. 13-90 and more specifically
p. 80 and onward "Carta of Greece and New political administration.
A new relation".
35. Anonymous Greek, Greek Prefecture, words about freedom, Italy
1806, A86 and the note from the publication of G. Valetas, Athens
1982, p. 34.
36. The "Report of the police department about the interrogation
of the imprisoned Greeks" to the ministry of police and the
emperor of Austria: It says that "Rhigas Velenstinlis... he undertook
this travel with the intention to create revolution according to
his plan to go to Morea towards the rebellious Greek Maniots and
gain their trust and unite them with other Greek rebels the Suliots
and with this united forces to move towards the east and then free
the Turkish provinces of Macedonia, Albania, and mainland Greece,
and the other provinces easily because according to his opinion
it would be easy for the Greeks to be armed and to have food supplies
and money from reach monasteries". Look at K. Amantos, unpublished
documents about Rhigas Velestinlis Athens 1930, reedited, Athens
1997, p. 179. Also refer to Aim. Lagrand. - Sp. Lamprou, unpublished
reports about Rhigas Velenstinlis and his co-martyrs, Athens 1891,
reeditions from the Scientific Society of Studies Pheres-Velenstino-Rhigas,
with the addition of index (assist. Dim. Karaberopoulos), Athens
1996, p. 11 and 71.
37. It was not possible to form an accusation against Rhigas since
his actions were not against the Austrian Empire. That is why the
Minister of Police tried so hard not to prosecute him to a criminal
court of justice, because Rhigas and his companions would be found
38. These are the words of General Macrygiannes for a painting painted
under his instructions by Panagiotis Zographou with the theme: "The
fall of Konstantinople".
39. Prof. Nicolaos Pantazopoulos explicitely states that: "Rhigas
went beyond the declaration of the France Revolution, that gives
rights to the individual and not to the societies meaning the minorities.
In that way Rhigas was to become the pioneer of the Global Declaration
of Human Rights at 1948, whitch for the first time recognizes human
rights with the same spirit of Rhigas to small or great groups like
the Communities and Societies". Refer to Nic. Pantazopoulos,
Studies about Rhigas Velestinlis, published by the Scientific Society
of Studies Pheres-Velestino-Rhigas, Athens 1994, p. 106.
THOURIOS - ROUSING SONG
Translation: Vassilis K. Zervoulakos
Editor: Dimitrios Karaberopoulos
SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY OF STUDIES
PHERES - VELESTINO - RHIGAS
LIBERTY - EQUALITY - BROTHERHOOD
NEW POLITICAL ADMINISTRATION
OF THE INHABITANTS OF RUMELE - GREECE
ASIA MINOR, MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS
AND OF MOLDOVLACHIA
FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE LAWS
AND OF THE HOMELAND
THE PEOPLE, DESCENDANT OF THE GREEKS, inhabitant of Rumele1, Asia
Minor, Mediterranean islands and Vlahobogdania2 and all people groaned
under the resented and detestable tyranny of the Othoman despotism,
people were forced to leave in foreign kingdoms and save themselves
from the unbearable and harsh yoke. All, I say, Christians and Turks,
without any discrimination of religion (because they all are creatures
of God and children of the first created) thinking that the Tyrant
known as Soultan, degrated completely himself to his effeminate
lusts and he is surrounded by uniques and blood thirsty ignorant
courtiers. He forgot and recented compassion and toughen his hurt
against innosence, and the most beautiful kingdom of the world praised
at all times by the wise men reduced into repugnemt anarchy.
No one, no matter his class or his religion, can be secure for his
life, his honour or his property. The most peaceful, innocent and
honest citizen is in danger every moment to become a disgraceful
sacrifice of either the tyrannic fantasy of the Sultan or of the
savage deputies and incompetent lords of the tyrant, or finally
(as it mostly happen) a victim of sultans ill mannered fierced imitators.
These people are enjoying this unpunished and harsh inhumanity and
the slaughter without any question, without any judgement.
- Heaven! You are the impartial witness of such crimes.
- Sun! you see everyday these ferocious insolent acts.
- Earth! You are constantly soaked through the gutter with innocent
Who is the one to claim the opposite? Who is that tiger, solid with
these sins? Let him come forward, and he will win the entire universe
as an enemy and witness of prosecution, because universe moaned
without a voice about the gutter of human blood that unfairly spelled
Until today, I say, that miserable people witnessed all of their
sorrows and pains their everyday tears their extermination due to
the bad and wretched administration and the deprivation of fair
laws, and so they decided, bravely this time, to gaze towards the
sky and raise gallantry their exhausted nape. The people armed their
arms with persistence, with the weapons of vengeance and despare
to shout aloud with a thunderous cry before the whole world their
holly and immaculate rights, given by god in order to live peacefully
Consequently all the people solidly should be able to compare always
with a wakeful eye the governments operations, concerning their
social legislation, and to be able to fight bravely the mean yoke
of despotism and to embrace the valuable freedom of their brave
ancestors. In the future they should not let themselves at any time
to be violated as slaves by the ruthless tyranny. Everyone should
have before his eyes like a shining mirror the foundation of his
own freedom, security and happiness. The judges should obviously
know which is their inavoidable duty towards the law-abiding free
citizens. The legislators and the prime officers of the administration
should follow this straight rule, because their profession should
be adjacent and aiming towards the happiness of the citizens. Therefore
it is gracely declared the following PUBLIC REVELATION of the valuable
HUMAN RIGHTS and of the free citizen of the state.
THE HUMAN RIGHTS
Article 1.- The aim, that from the dawn of the world people gathered
from the woods for the first time, so to live together, building
towns and countries is to help each other to live happily, instead
of fighting each other or endure someone to suck their blood.
Then they named a king to be on the alert for their interest, in
order to be sure that they enjoy their natural rights, something
that no one on earth has the right to take away from them.
Article 2.- These Natural rights are: firstly all to be equal and
not someone superior to the other. Secondly, to be free and no one
slave to the other. Thirdly, to be secure in our life and no one
to be able to imagine that he can deprive it unfairly and forthly,
no one to be able to claim the property we own because it belongs
to us and to our heirs.
Article 3.- All people, Christians and Turks are equal by nature.
When someone commits an offence of any kind the law is the same
for the offence and it is unchangeable. Under no circumstances there
will be a lesser punishment for the rich than for the poor, for
the same offence, but equal.
Article 4.- The law is that, freely taken, decision made with the
concent of the whole of the people. All of us want the killer to
be killed. This is called law and punishment applies in the same
way to all of us. And then another function of the law, the one
that defends because we all want to rule our farms. So, no one is
permitted to take anything away from us using violence. This is
the law because we ourselves accept it and want it. The law always
commands everything that is fair and beneficial to the process of
our life and prevents everything that harms us.
Article 5.- All fellow citizens can have access to public offices
of equal value. Free nations know of no other reason of preference
in their choices but the ones of caution and prosperity. Namely,
everyone, when he is capable and hardworking for a public work,
his is entitled to obtain it. On the contrary, when he is not capable,
but vulgar, the office should not be granted. Because without knowing
how to act, he runs contrary and harms the public by his ignorance
and his inability.
Article 6.- Freedom is that force which man owns in order to act
in a way that cannot clash with his neighbours rights. Its foundation
is nature because our nature is to love to be free. Justice is its
rule because just freedom is good. Freedom's guardian is law, because
it determines the limits to which our freedom extends. The moral
boundary of freedom is this saying : Don't do to others what you
don't want others to do to you.
Article 7.- The right to reveal our opinion and thoughts through
printing, as well as many other ways; the right of gathering peacefully;
the freedom of all religions, Christianity, Islam, Judaism and others,
are not restricted under the present administration. When these
rights are restricted it is obviously that this is due to tyranny
or that it is still a remembrance of the ostracised despotism that
Article 8.- Security is, the one defense, given by the nation and
the people to every person for the protection of his own self, his
rights and his subjects. Meaning when someone harms one person,
or unjustly takes anything from him, all people must stand against
this oppresor and chase him away.
Article 9.- Law has the duty to protect the common freedom of the
whole nation as well as that of every person, inhabitant of this
country, against the depression and despotism of the governors.
When they govern well the law must protect them, when wrongly, to
Article 10.- No human should be prosecuted in court or arrested
by judge's men or imprisoned in any other circumstance than the
one determined by the law; and not according the imagination and
judge's will. Every citizen though, when he is summoned in a court
of justice, or when the servants of the law seize him, he must obey
at once and go to the court. In case he resists and refuses judgement
he is considered as breaking the law. This is a great mistake for
an individual, when he resists and disobeys the law, if he knows
that he should not be punished when innocent.
Article 11.- Every oppressing attempt to convict someone who committed
no fault, and without the command of the law, it is evident that
it only derives from the judge's ill will and therefore it is tyrannic.
The person, they want to tyrannise over that way, has the right
and the permission to resist with all of his power and to brake
loose from all restraints with violence and not to submit.
Article 12.- Those who issue orders, or in any way sign or execute
them, or they send others to finish them, claiming to them that
it is necessary to execute the orders, and if that takes place without
the knowledge of the administration, then they are guilty and they
will be severely punished.
Article 13.- Every person who seems to be innocent, if he is slandered
to be guilty and until his culpability is confirmed, and evidently
it is necessary to be arrested by the people of the law, until then,
every kind of severity, as well as fastening, insults, beatings,
are not necessary when arresting this person, and should be prohibited
until the person is judged. Only in the case that the individual
is proven guilty, only then his punishment should start as the law
Article 14.- No person should be judged and punished before he is
summoned by the law unless he could defend himself. He is punished
only if the law has been established before he commits the offence.
A law that applies for crimes committed at the time the law did
not existed is called tyranny and sentencing past crimes with a
new law is called unlawfulness. Namely, a man has stolen the ox
of someone else and by the time he stole it there was no law that
restricted that theft. Later on, a law was issued against stealing
each others property, the abductor gives the ox back but he is not
punished because he was not aware that abduction was wrong.
Article 15.- The law has to define exact penalties that are proven
absolutely necessary. The penalties must be proportionate to the
crime and beneficial to the citizens' common life. Namely, if someone
beated someone else, he should be beated back but not beheaded.
Article 16.- It is every citizen's right to exercise authority peacefully
over his property. That is, to enjoy his property, to use it according
his will, to enjoy his incomes and the fruits of his craft, his
work and his diligence, without anyone been able to distract him
from it, not even for a minute.
Article 17.- Any kind of labor, art, agricultural occupation or
commerce nor any kind of attempt useful to their common life are
not prohibited to the citizens. The diligence of all citizens could
expand to all arts and crafts.
Article 18.- Each man can serve someone else as servant, offering
his time to the use (of his master). But he cannot sell himself
or been sold to someone else. Because his entity does not belong
only to him, but he belongs also to his country. Law does not recognise
any enslavement or servitude even to the slaves themselves. Only
one promise is enough for a servant to undertake a job and to be
grateful towards the one who pays a salary to him. The master has
no right to insult him nor beat him but he can retract the agreement
and pay him until the moment he dismisses him.
Article 19.- No one can be deprived from the slightest part of his
farms without his consent. If there is a public necessity, that
is if his country asks for his garden, to make a market or a building,
then his garden must be evaluated and the owner must be paid and
in that land to build either the market or the building.
Article 20.- Every tax should be opposed for the public benefit
only and not for the plundering appetite of one or another. Every
inhabitant has the right to assist in the keeping of the account
catalogues, to be vigilant to the gathering of taxes, and to take
account from the one who collected the taxes.
Article 21.- The public contributions and rewards are holy duty
of the country. The public is obliged to help the miserable inhabitants
as much as possible by providing them with work, and by supporting
the people who are not able any more. That is, a farmer who possesses
no oxes is unemployed. The country has the duty to provide him with
oxes, and wait until he pays back. Another was crippled in the war
for his homeland; The homeland should reward and nourish him during
Article 22.- Everybody, without any exception, has the duty to be
literate. The country has to establish schools for all male and
female children in all villages, since the education brings the
progress which makes free nations shine. The old historians should
be explained and in the big towns French and Italian languages should
be taught while the Ancient Greek language must be indispensable.
Article 23.- The common affirmation and security of every citizen
consists in the activation of all the community. Namely, we should
consider that if somebody suffers from something bad, it affects
all. And for that we must ensure all that their rights will be handled
and protected. This security is grounded upon the sovereignty of
the nation. That is, the whole nation is wronged even if only one
citizen is wronged.
Article 24.- This sovereignty is without authority if the limits
of the public offices are not determined by law and if it is not
decided explicitely for all the public officers to give account
for their actions.
Article 25.- This sovereignty is based on the people, it is one,
undivided, indeterminate and inalienable. That is, only the people
can order and not a fracture of the people or a city. People can
order about everything, without any imprediment.
Article 26.- No part of the people is in position to activate the
power of the whole nation, but every member of the sovereign people,
when gathered, has the right to express his will in a freely manner.
Article 27.- Every man, who would like to seize the sovereignty
and the power of the nation, he would be in prison at once by free
people, and he should be judged and punished according to the law.
Article 28.- A nation has always the right to transform and change
its legislation. People of one generation cannot subjugate to the
laws the individuals who will be born after them.
Article 29.- Every citizen has an equal right with the others to
assist in creating a law, or to nominate the officers, the representatives
and the commissaries of the nation.
Article 30.- The public offices of the country are held for a certain
period, for as long as the administration considers it reasonable.
These must not be considered as particular honours, nor as rewards,
but as indispensable duties of the citizens in the serving of the
Article 31.- The crimes of the commissaries and the public servants
of the nation must never stay unpunished. Nobody has the right to
consider himself more intact than the others. That is, when someone's
wrong is great or small the law punishes him inevitably according
to his offence, even if he is the most important officer.
Article 32.- The right of every citizen to submit a written report
and to complain for a disturbance that happened to him, to these
who have power of the nation in their hands, it should not be restrained
by no means, nor they must say to him that this not the time or
the place, but no matter the time he goes the complaining citizen,
his report has to submitted.
Article 33.- The resistance of every citizen when he is oppressed
and wronged is the result of his explicit rights. Because no one
resists if he knows that he will not be justified with the contribution
of the law.
Article 34.- When only one citizen of this country is wronged, the
entire country is wrong and vice versa, when the country is wronged
or in war, every citizen is in war. For that it is impossible to
say: this or that country is at war, I do not care, because I live
in peace in my country, but I am in war when that country is suffering,
as a part of the whole world that I belong.(e.g. the Bulgarians
must be activated when the Greeks are suffering and vice versa),
and both of them for the Albanians and the Vlachs1.
Article 35.- When the administration violates, brakes and despises
the rights of the people and does not listen to their complaints,
then the revolution of the people or part of the people and the
punishment of the tyrants is most sacred of all their rights and
the most indespensable of all their duties. In case the revolutionaries
live in a place where the tyrants are more in number, the most courageous
and freedom-loving patriots should hold the crossings of the streets
and the mountains heights, until they become many in number and
multiplied and only then they should start the attack against the
tyrants. They should make for every ten people one decarch for every
fifty one penticontarch for a hundred one centurion, the chiliarch
will have ten centurions, and the general three chiliarchs; as for
the commander in chief, many generals.
The debts of the cities, states and towns as well as of the citizens,
who were granted a lawn five years ago and during that period they
had to pay an interest to the lenders, are annulled by the present
administration and the lenders should have no claim for the capital
and the interest from the debtors. Since the capital is doubled,
because of the high interest the lenders received from the debtors,
in a period of five years.
ORIGIN OF THE LEGAL ACT
AND HEART OF THE ADMINISTRATION
ORDER AND MODE
HOW THEY MUST BE ENSURED
BY THE CITIZENS
Article 1.-- THE GREEK DEMOCRACY is one despite the fact that it
includes in its bosom diverse nations and religions. The Greek democracy
does not regard the differences of the religion with a hostile eye.
It is undivided, despite the fact that rivers and seas divide its
provinces, because all are one tide indissoluble body.
About division of the people
Article 2.- THE GREEK PEOPLE, the ones in this country, inhabitants,
without exception in religion and language, are divided in first
gatherings, to the toparchies, in order to set in action its dominant
power. That is, the Greek people gather in every province to give
their opinion about the problems.
Article 3.- The Greek people are divided in provinces, toparchies
and regions for the facilitate of the government and in order of
justice to be practised. That is province is called Thessaly, toparchy
Magnesia (that is the villages of Volos) and region the one of Macrinitsa
about twelve villages.
About the order of the citizens
Article 4.- Every human born and resident in this country who has
completed his twenty first year of age is a citizen.
- Every foreigner of the right time, who is inhabitant of this country
for a year and he lives with his hard work is a citizen.
- The one who buys a farm is a citizen.
- The one who adopts a child is a citizen.
- The one who speaks the modern or ancient Greek language and helps
Greece, even if he lives in the antipodes (since Greeks are spreaded
in both hemispheres) is Greek and citizen.
- And finally, every foreigner that is regarded by the administration
as a worthy inhabitant of the country, that is, like a good craftman,
a hard working teacher, a deserving patriot, he is welcomed in the
country and he can make use of equal rights like all his European
- A foreign philosopher or artist, who leaves his country and comes
to live in Greece, with a purpose to pass on his wisdom or his art,
he is not only regarded as a citizen but with public expenses, a
marble statue should be raised with the medals of his teaching or
his art, and the most wise Greek writer should write the history
of his life.
Article 5.- Someone loses his citizen rights if he becomes a citizen
of a foreign country and he does not help his country (Greece),
from where he is, with all possible ways, but instead he disregards
all his country's commands. The same way, loses his rights everyone
who accepts a public office or work or gifts from a tyrant's hand.
Such a person should not be called citizen any more, but a traitor;
For that he should be driven away and he must not be trusted. Furthermore
he loses his rights someone who is in error and according to the
law he is submitted in a court of justice and until his innocence
On the contrary, a citizen is considered brave, commendable and
loving mortal to his co-citizens, if he has lived in foreign places,
learned a craft or studied a science or navigation or most of all
the war tacticts and returns to his country. His name, hometown
and race should be written in the public books, not only as a citizen
but as a benefactor of his country. An office rank should be given
immediately to him, according to his diligence.
Article 6.- The use of the citizen's rights remains inactive when
the citizen is submitted in a court of justice and for as long as
the court lasts, and until it ends to his benefit.
About the dominance of the people
Article 7.- The dominant people are all the citizens of this country,
Greeks, Bulgarians, Albanians, Vlachs, Armenians, Turks and every
other race, no matter what their religion or dialect is.
Article 8.- These people alone name their envoys to the common council
of the nation.
Article 9.- The people gives permission of election to the electors
in order to elect the public judges, the criminal judges and the
rest of the officers.
Article 10.- These people decide if the existing laws are good for
their prosperity; if they are good the people preserve and keep
them, otherwise they have the right to bring out to the administration
About the first assemblies
Article 11.- The first assemblies of the people take place to decide
who are going to be elected as delegates, they are formed by the
inhabitants who own houses in the specific toparchy where the assembly
is held, at least six months before the gathering of the assembly.
Article 12.- These first gatherings are composed by two hundred
citizens at least and six hundred citizens the most invited to state
Article 13.- These first gatherings before practicing elections,
firstly appoint a president, a secretary to record the proceedings
and a voter (the one who holds the ballot-box inside which the ballots
-on which the names and votes of the citizens are written and dropped).
Article 14.- The police is appointed among the citizens to keep
the order of the assembly.
Article 15.- No one in that assembly should bare arms.
Article 16.- The elections are taking place by writing or by acclamation,
the way specified by each voter individually.
Article 17.- One first assembly of the toparchy by no means can
impose another toparchy to assemble accordingly. But each toparchy
is free to decide itself.
Article 18.- The voters assure the vote of the citizens who cannot
write but they want their opinion to be written.
Article 19.- The opinions given about the laws should be yes or
no. That is the ones who want a law should write their name and
a yes, while the ones who are against the same law should write
their name and a no and the majority prevails.
Article 20.- The will of the first assembly is announced such as:
The citizens of that toparchy ......... gathered to their first assembly
the first of May 1798 with a number of six hundred voters, voted
for that issue ... or against that issue... they were the majority in
number 350 against 250.
About national representation
Article 21.- The large number of the people are representing the
whole nation. That majority is the foundation of the national representation,
and not only the rich or the elders.
Article 22.- Forty thousand (40.000) subjects have to elect one
among them, in order to be their delegate to the legislative assembly.
Article 23.- Every unification of the first assemblies with a number
ranging between 39 and 41 thousands people elects one delegate.
Article 24.- The name of the delegate is extracted only from the
majority of the votes. That is, the minority has never the power,
no matter how rich they may be.
Article 25.- Every first assembly should gather the votes and send
an inspector to the greater assembly in the center of the Toparchy,
to criticize, judge the election of the elector that took place
(to the greater toparchy) and there is no need for all the people
to take part except for the inspector.
Article 26.- If in the first vote collection of the assembly a sufficient
number of votes is not contained, but the votes from both antagonistic
sides are equal, then a second assembly should take place, and then
they should vote among the two citizens who gathered the majority
Article 27.- If the number of votes are equal, that is 300 for Peter
and 300 for Paul, then the eldest should be preferred as much as
to be a nominee and furthermore to be elected. But if both are of
the same age, the clergy should make the choice.
Article 28.- Every hard working citizen with full civil rights,
is worthy to be elected to the whole extent of the democracy.
Article 29.- Every delegate deputy is a subject, servant of the
whole nation. That is he is not considered as a representative from
a specific toparchy, but he belongs to all of us.
Article 30.- In case an elected deputy does not accept his election,
or he asks to be excluded from this work, or the administration
placed him out of his office because of an evident excuse, or he
died, the first assemblies, that elected him should have already
elected his successor to substitute him.
Article 31.- One delegate deputy, who asked to be released and was
given permission by the administration, cannot leave his job until
another comes in his place and operates the work of the released.
Article 32.- The people of this country assemble every year in the
1st of May, to make elections of their deputies.
Article 33.- The people judge and decide about these elections,
no matter the number of the citizens who have the right to give
vote to these elections is.
Article 34.- The first assemblies may take place not only in the
specific dates, that is in the 1st of May; the assembly may take
place when the one fifth of the citizens who have the right to give
their opinion to the elections ask for it.
Article 35.- The assembly takes place (when it happens such an occasion
like in Article 34) among the elders of that land, where is the
habit to take place always (the elections).
Article 36.- These out of date assemblies (that is the ones that
take place in other dates and not in the first of May) can think
and decide when is present just one more than the half of these
citizens who have the right to give their opinion; that is if the
exact number of the voters is 600, 301 must be present, in order
to be an out of date assembly.
About the Electoral Assemblies
Article 37.- The citizens, united in the first assemblies, name
an elector, when they are 200 in number. If they are between 201
and 400 they name two electors, and if they are between 401 and
600 they name three.
Article 38.- The electoral assemblies are organised, last and take
place in the same way like the first that we mentioned (article
11, 12, 13); that is, the first assemblies they take place in writing
or by acclamation, the same way for the electoral assemblies. There
are at least 600 voters to elect three, here again the same.
About the Legislative Body
Article 39.- The Legislative Body is called Parliament as well,
and it is composed of 750 subjects. The 500 of them are the youngest
and they are called THE PARLIAMENT OF THE 500; they submit Laws.
The rest 250 are the elders and they are called THE PARLIAMENT OF
THE ELDERS; they validate the submitted Laws of the 500 or they
reject them if they believe that they are not reasonable. They,
the 500, because they are younger they are resourceful and active.
The others, because they are elders, they are critical and investigating.
That body is eternal in its work. Although the subjects may change,
the body stays in whole and its commands never change with the change
of the subjects.
Article 40.- The members of the Legislative Body are changed or
Article 41.- The unification of all delegate deputies who were dispatched
by the electoral assemblies must be present at the place they were
appointed, in order to begin their work at the first day of July.
Article 42.- That Legislative Body is called NATIONAL ASSEMBLY and
represents the whole Nation; this body issues orders and fair laws;
the Laws are just and accepted when there is at least one more than
the half of the number of the deputies and not just a few.
Article 43.- It is not allowed these delegates to be denounced or
judged for their ideas and opinions that revealed in the meeting
of the Legislative Body; that is, they are always free to say everything
they believe if it is of service to the country, and without any
Article 44.- They can be judged when they commit a serious crime,
like a murder or something of the same gravity; the decision though
to take action against them, should be taken with the approval of
the Legislative Body, because these subjects are sacred too and
represent the whole nation which is represented by the Legislative
Body. That is only the Legislative Body must convict them.
About the conventions of the Legislative Body
Article 45.- The congresses of the legislative body are public
Article 46.- Everything that is said in the Congress is written
down and called Records of Proceedings; these Records of Proceedings
should be published, in order for the people to read them and have
knowledge of the Law.
Article 47.- The Congress cannot order or decide, if there are not
at least half of the members present.
Article 48.- The Congress cannot prevent the speech of a congressman
who wants to speak and is thinking something essential for the country.
Article 49.- The Congress issues orders when the present deputies
are more than those in absence.
Article 50.- Fifty members of the National Assembly if they are
in a dilema or in a special occasion or they are displeased by something,
they can ask the gathering of the whole Nation according to the
previously mentioned ways (Articles 11, 12, 13, 38) in order for
the Nation to decide for that case.
Article 51.- The National Assembly has the right to examine the
behavior and the motives of every delegate that conveys with it.
If it is for the benefit of the country, it is good, if not, to
reveal him and take measures against the suspect.
Article 52.- The guardians, the ones who guard the place where the
congress of the Legislative Body conveys, are subject to the orders
of the body; similarly, everyone around the building of the assembly
is appointed by the body.
About the works of the Legislative Body
Article 53.- The Legislative Body creates laws and gives passings
and resolutions. Every law and order is written in simple (demotic)
Greek language, because it is the most understandable and easy to
study by every nation included in this country; similarly for every
decision document and public acts.
Article 54.- LAWS are these acts of the Legislative Body aiming
(a) - The legislation about civil and criminal laws.
(b) - The general administration of the regular income and expenses
of the Democracy.
(c) - The regions under the jurisdiction of the whole nation are
(d) - The title, the weight, the official stamp, the name of aspron1
and every other kind of currency.
(e) - The different kinds of giving, how much is the total amount
due and how is to be collected.
(f) - The declaration of war against a hostile nation.
(g) - Every new division in toparchies and counties of the Democracy.
(h) - The supervision of schools and the way the children of the
citizens should be raised.
(i) - The public honors for the remembrance of great men and the
defenders of the Country.
Article 55.- PASSINGS OR ORDERS are the acts of the Legislative
Body aiming to:
(a) - The yearly appointment of army to sea and land wherever it
(b) - The permission or the prohibition to a foreign army to pass
through the land of this country.
(c) - The transfer of foreign naval powers fleets to the ports of
the Greek Democracy.
(d) - The concern about public piece and security; that is, the
ways to secure orders and piece inside the Greek territory.
(e) - The annual and every day sharing of the contributions and
public works; that is, every contribution needed in the different
places of Democracy during the year, and orders for the building
of bridges, roads, ports, canals, buildings and so on.
(f) - The orders for the issue of aspra of every kind.
(g) - The irregular and unpredicted expenses of the public affairs;
that is, the recompense of someone who burned enemy ships, or the
expenses of someone who is dispatched as a spy for the benefit of
(h) - The thoughts, that is the wise measurements useful in a land,
a place, a city or in public works.
(i) - The concern for the defense of the Democracy.
(j) - The validation of piece treaties.
(k) - The confirmation or change of the generals of the Democracy.
(l) - To chase and compel every member of the parliament to give
account, likewise every civil and public officer.
(m) - The prosecution of everyone who is a suspect for a conspiracy
against the general security of the Democracy.
(n) - Every alteration in the partial split of the Greek land; that
is, if someone wants to be a traitor of his country, the country
takes back the land he ruled and gives it to someone else.
(o) - The rewards of the Nation; that is, if a citizen acted heroically,
the Nation should reward him; the Legislative Body overtakes the
concern to decide what kind of reward he will receive.
About the creation of Laws
Article 56.- When there is a need for the creation of a Law in
the Democracy, first a written report takes place, for anyone to
be able to examine the benefit or the harm that the law may cause.
Article 57.- There should be a specific examining period and the
enactment must be ready after fifteen days from the submission of
the written report.
Article 58.- The purpose of that Law, that is its benefit, must
be published and sent to every region of the Democracy with the
following inscription: PROJECTED LAW.
Article 59.- Forty days after the issue of the projected law, if
in the 51% of the regions the one tenth of the first assemblies
(that is 60 citizens) of each properly formed region did not object,
then the projected written law is accepted, validated and recognized
from now and onwards as Law.
Article 60.- If the one tenth of the first assemblies of each province
rejects the law, then the Legislative Body assembles again the first
assemblies (articles 11, 12, 13) and asks for the people to give
About the title of Laws and Orders
Article 61.- The laws, orders, judgments and every public acts,
obtain such a title: In the name of the Greek People, the ...year
of Freedom, the year of Grace...
About the Executive Court
Article 62.- The Executive Court consists of five men.
Article 63.- The Executive Assembly of each region (articles 37,
38) names one candidate, the Legislative Body elects from the general
catalog of names the members of the Government House.
Article 64.- It changes every six months.
Article 65.- The Government House has the duty to attend, administrate
and be vigilant about the public administration; it does not have
the permission to act otherwise, but by executing the Laws and Orders
which are published by the Legislative Body.
Article 66.- This elects the outside leaders and elders of the general
administration of the Democracy, the Ambassadors and Consuls in
the foreign Courts.
Article 67.- The Legislative Body defines the number and the duties
of the agents, that is the region delegates of this Government House.
Article 68.- These agents do not make between them any kind of chamber
of deputies, they are separated and there is no connection among
them. They do not have any personal authority, but they act in the
name of the Government House.
Article 69.- The Government House appoints agents to operate outside
the Democracy; that is, the ones who have to accomplish a venture
for the Country or to finish any hidden act.
Article 70.- It discusses about piece with nations in war.
Article 71.- The men that consist the Government House, if they
commit an offense, they are called by the Legislative Body.
Article 72.- The Government House has to pay account for the inactiveness
and usefulness of the laws, the resolutions and the abuses, whenever
Article 73.- The Government House stops agents and places others
in their position, when it is itself renewed.
Article 74.- The Government House has the duty to prosecute the
agents for mistakes, if these occur, and to give notice to the Court
Relations of the Executive Government House
with the Legislative Body
Article 75.- The Executive Government House is near to the Legislative
Body, has a different entrance and it holds its meetings in a different
Article 76.- When the Executive Government House has to give an
account or any news to the Legislative Body, it must always be listened
to without any exemption.
Article 77.- The Legislative Body invites all or part of the Government
House to unify when it things it is justifiable.
About Administrative and Civic Bodies
Article 78.- In every democratic Plasa* there is a civic administration.
- In every toparchy there is a mediator government; that is, the
body to which the peripheral civic administration gives its report.
- In every county, there is a central administration; that is, the
body to which the civic governments give their reports.
Article 79.- The officers of the civic administrations are elected
from the Plasa gatherings.
Article 80.- The governors are elected from the electoral assemblies
of the Toparchies and counties.
Article 81.- Half of the governors and civic administrators are
renewed every year.
Article 82.- The governors and the civic administrators are not
present, that is they do not attend the assemblies of the people
as long as they are in duty.
- They cannot by no means change (the administrators and the representatives)
the acts and orders of the Legislative Body, nor to waste time in
Article 83.- The Legislative Body decides in writing about the work
of the governors and the civic administrators, the rules of their
submission and the punishment they should receive in case they committed
Article 84.- The meetings of the civic administrators and governors
are public and transparent.
About Civic Justice
Article 85.- The code of the civil and criminal laws is the same
throughout the Democracy and people are equal before the law. All
people are judged in the same way when they commit a crime and they
are rewarded when they do something glorious for the country.
Article 86.- No one can disturb citizens. The ones who have court
differences among them called elected judges and looked up their
Article 87.- The decision of these elected judges is complete and
has power; unless both rival parties wish to be judged by a higher
Article 88.- In every village two of the villagers should be chosen
as judges of peace or as reconciliators. They should judge the differences
of the inhabitants according to the law and submit their decisions
Article 89.- These judges offer their reconciliation and judgment
Article 90.- Their number and their surroundings are defined by
the Legislative Body; that is, how many they should be and what
they need in order to judge.
Article 91.- The public judges are elected by the electoral assemblies;
that is, these assemblies appoint who is going to be an elected
Article 92.- The number of such elected judges and the limit of
their power are determined by the Legislative Body.
Article 93.- They are aware, that is, they accept and investigate
the objections, not judged rightly by the regional elected judges
or by peace judges.
Article 94.- They decide and speak in public. They say their opinion
aloud. They pass their judgment right only with the speech or with
a simple document, without bureaucracy and without payment. They
give the reasons of their decisions.
Article 95.- The judges of peace and the elected public judges are
About Criminal Justice
Article 96.- For a criminal act no citizen must be judged in any
other way but only after an accepted charge from elected judges
(who are impartial, incorruptible and honest men) which is enacted
by the Legislative Body.
- The ones who will be charged, elect judges the ones who will be
elected in the future, even if they were not judges before.
- Everything they say for their defense should be public and obvious.
- The act and the purpose of their crime is depicted by an elected
- The penalty of the petty offense is determined by another Court,
which is criminal. Not the same Court can judge and punish.
Article 97.- The criminal judges are elected every year by the electoral
About the Disbench Court
Article 98.- Throughout the Democracy there is one Disbench Court
Article 99.- This Court has not the duty to know completely every
information about the cases.
Article 100.- The members of this Court are annually by the electoral
assemblies and they are 24 in number.
- The task of this Court is to announce the change of the members
of the Administrative Government House and of the Legislative Body
in the end of each year.
About Public Taxes
Article 101.- No citizen is exempted from his honest obligation
to give, according to his power and his riches, taxes for the public
About Public Treasure
Article 102.- The treasury of the Nation is the main centre of
incomes and expenses of the Democracy.
Article 103.- It is administrated by commissioners who have to give
account for their actions, who are elected by the Administrative
Article 104.- These commissioners are examined by ephors elected
by the Legislative Body and chosen among them. The commissioners
should provide answers for abuses they tried to hide.
About the receiving of accounts
Article 105.- The accounts of the commissaries of the national
treasury and of the administrators of public funds, are given every
year to the ephors who have to give account about them and they
are elected by the Administrative Government House.
Article 106.- These validators are observed by ephors who are elected
by the Legal Body and they come from this body and they have to
answer about the abuses and mistakes they denied to make obvious.
The Legal Body decides about the accounts and verifies them.
About the Strength of the Democracy
Article 107.- The general strength of the Democracy is consisted
from the whole nation.
Article 108.- The Democracy keeps, with its own expenses, an army
in land and sea, in time of war and peace.
Article 109.- Every Greek is a soldier; everyone should be trained
in weapons and shooting; everyone should learn the tactics; even
the Greek women should hold bows in their hand if they are not skilful
with the rifle.
Article 110.- No one should be all-powerful, that is to have all
the powers of the Democracy, in land and sea, in his hand.
Article 111.- The differences between military ranks (that is chiliarch,
general), the officers possess, the stripes and the submission of
the regular soldiers are only for as long as the war lasts, but
when it is over everyone is equal and fraternal with each other.
Article 112.- The public police appointed to keep peace and order
inside the Democracy, acts only by the written command of the legally
Article 113.- The public troops appointed to act against the foreign
enemies of the Country, act under the commands of the Electoral
Article 114.- No part of armed men has the permission to impose
its will, or to command, but only to carry out the written orders
of the commanders.
About the National Assemblies
Article 115.- If in one more than the half of the counties of the
Democracy, the one tenth of the first assemblies, that took place
under the inflicted rules (articles 11, 12, 13) ask to reconsider
the act of the legislative administration or to change some of its
articles, then the Legislative Body has the duty to constitute first
assemblies of all the regions of the Democracy, in order to be informed
whether a general National Council should be formed.
Article 116.- The General Assembly takes place in the same way as
the legislative; that is, a delegate of every county is dispatched
and unites the authorisation of his regional assembly with the others.
Article 117.- This out of schedule National Assembly is engaged
in making the act of the legislative administration only upon these
causes that caused the gathering of this assembly and for nothing
else; that is, to consider the case for which is set about and not
for any other.
About the relation of the Greek Democracy
with foreign nations
Article 118.- The Greek People is friendly and a natural ally with
the free nations.
Article 119.- The Greeks do not interfere with the administration
of the other nations; likewise it is prohibited for other nations
to interfere with the Greek administration. They honour the Ambassadors
and the Consults of the nations represented in this country and
they assure them a fearless residence. They respect their traders
and they do not harm their commercial ships, when they do not convey
Article 120.- They accept all the underprivileged and all the exiled
from their foreign countries if the reason was Freedom. They denounce,
do not welcome and do not offer services to the Tyrants.
Article 121.- They never make peace with an enemy that detains a
About the security of assurance of these Rights
Article 122.- The Legislative Administration secures to all Greeks,
Turks and Armenians, the equality, the freedom, the security, the
authority they have over their farms, the public debts that occurred
for Liberty, the freedom of all religions, the same upbringing,
the public contributions where they belong to be granted, the unlimited
freedom of the press, the right of someone to give report and be
listened to, the right to gather in public numbers and finally the
enjoyment of all Human Rights.
Article 123.- The Greek Democracy honours the gentleness, the bravery,
the elders, the parental affection and the misery; the last one
sets the consignment of this legislative administration under the
sleepless guard of all virtuous liberal men, who embraced military
life in order not to submit in Tyrants yoke, and they ranged themselves
with eternal war against the Tyrants.
Article 124.- The Declaration of Human Rights and this Legal Act
should be inscribed upon copper plate and put at the place of the
assembly of the Legislative Body. Copies should be made and placed
to all cities, towns, villages and settlements of the Democracy
where every citizen can see which are the components of this thesaurus
[1.] - The symbol, placed in colours and banners flags of the Greek
Democracy, is Hercules club with three crosses upon. The banners
and colours are of three colours, black, white and red; the red
is above, the white is in the middle and the black is below.
- The red indicates the imperial purple and the sovereignty of the
Greek People; it was used by our processors as a war cloth, because
the wounds were not obvious when blood was coming out and so the
soldiers did not hesitate.
- The white colour indicates the innocence and our rights against
- The black colour indicates our death for our Country and Freedom.
[2.] - All Greek soldiers wear on their head a helmet.
[3.] - All Greek soldiers carry a bayonet in their waste like a
sabre, and place it to their rifle in time of need or deployment
[4.] - The uniform of the Greek soldier is the heroic one: black
tunic, white skirt and red socks.
[5.] - Every Greek Man and Woman, like every citizen of that Democracy,
should wear on his helmet or his cap as a stripe one similar club.
Because it is the motto. It should be written or embroidered on
white fabric, or even from copper plate. This is the sign of recognition
for all free, equal and democratic brothers.
THOURIOS - ROUSING SONG
THOURIOS - ROUSING SONG
that is, a dasing Patriotic Hymn first,
for the sound A GREAT COMMAND
For how long, lads, we shall spread our lives in
alone, like the lions, to mountains and crests?
To leave inside caves , the branches all we see
to leave from this world, all for the bitter chain?
To lose brothers and parents, country and friends, 5
all our relatives and children as well?
It' s better if for an hour we live our life free
than living forty years in bondage and in jail (being unfree)!
What is your gain if you live and be in chain
think that you are braised every hour in flame. 10
Veziar, Dragoman or Master if you be,
the Tyrant unfairly will perish you from being;
You work the whole day, you are doing every did,
but yet again he strives all of your blood to drink.
Soutsos and Mourouzis, Petrakis, Scanaves, 15
Guikas and Mavrogenis a mirror are to see.
Gallant commanders, popular parsons,
and masters all they died by an unjust sword;
and countless so many, and Turks and Greeks,
they lost their life and treasures without any cause. 20
Come now this time with ardour,
to swear upon the cross;
councilors hard-working with patriotism to settle,
in order their instructions for everything to set;
the laws must be the prime and only guide 25
and only one for country the leader may be;
because anarchy alone like slavery resembles;
living like breasts the hardest flame is.
And then, with heads in heavens
to God let's speak from heart: 30
Here the patriots stand and raise their hands
to the sky, and they take the oath:
"Oh Lord of the world, I take an oath to thee,
with tyrants' opinion I never to agree!
Nor to work for them, never to be deceived
and to their promises never to give in.
As long as I live to this world, my only aim, 35
firm will be to vanish them all.
Loyal to my country, the yoke I smash,
inseparable I'll be under the general.
My oath if I break, let's sky be in glow,
to burn me and become like a smoke!" 40
To East and West and South and North
for homeland all we must have only one heart.
Freely in his faith everyone must live
in glory of war together all must be.
Burgarians, Albanians, Armenians and Greeks, 45
blacks and whites all with the same fling,
for freedom the sword let's all gird
and everyone should hear that brave we will be.
All those because or tyranny went to foreign land,
let everyone now return back to his motherland; 50
and everyone who knows how to fight a war,
let's all come back, the tyrants to overcome;
Rumele calls everyone, all with open arms,
to give them back their fortune, their values and their land.
For how long an officer, there to foreign kings; 55
come back become a pillar of your own kin.
It's better for the country someone to be lost,
than for a foreign monarch to place tassels to his sword.
And everyone submitted, our enemy no more
our brothers will become, even if heathen are. 60
But everyone who dares to stand against of us,
all let them perish even if they are a part of us.
Souliots and Maniots, lions well known
for how long in your caves, with shattered eyes you ll' sleeep?
Montenegro's tigers and Olympous cross-eagles, 65
And Agrafa's falcons, one soul you shall be.
And brave Macedonians pounce upon at once
and suck the blood or tyrants like wild animals
From Saba and Dunable, Christian brothers
with arms in hand everyone show up; 70
let's your blood boil in just anger;
great and small together all for the tyrant's loss.
Brave men from Black sea
until when Barbarians are going to rule thee?
Wait no more invisible Lazoi, 75
slip on to the channel along with us and see.
Sea dolphins and island's azdenia,1
cast like the glint, strike the enemy.
From Crete and Hydra sea birds,
its time of your country to listen to the world. 80
And all of you in the Armada, like fine lads,
the law commands you to set the fire.
Along with us Maltesers, one body let's become;
against the tyrants let's all make a dash.
Greece calls, she asks and feels for you 85
and with mother's voice is crying for your assist.
Why Pasvatzoglou, so ecstatic there you be?
Jump to the Balkania2 and nest like the eagle.
ignore the horn-owls and crows
unite with the slave if you want to win. 90
Silistra and Braila, Smaili and Kili,
Benderi and Hotini, all they invite you.
Send your troops and they will submit,
because under the tyranny is impossible to live.
Gurtze, sleep no more, rise with fury 95
now you have the chance like Brousia to be seen.
And you pasha at Halepi you are thinking you are free
don't lose your time, appear in the field;
rise at once, appear along with your troops,
at Polis' commands never to give in. 100
lions from Misirion make it your first job
find your own Bey and choose him for a king;
The poll-tax of Egypt to Poli never reach,
the vicious wolf may die, that tyrannises you.
But all with one soul, opinion and heart, 105
strike the tyrant's cradle and seize him to exist!
Let's light all a flame to all the Turkish world
to light up from Bosnia up to Africa!
Raise your flags and all rise the cross
and beat the enemy like the thunderbolts! 110
Never to consider that he is strong
the same like the rabbit his heart strikes and trembles.
Three hundred braves made him to see
that he cannot with cannoballs to beat them in the field.
So, why are you late; and looking like dead? 115
wake up, do not oppose and be no enemy.
Like our forefathers fought like the beasts
for freedom in the fire bravely they leaped,
the same way, brothers, let's take for once
the arms and brake free from bitter slavery! 120
Slaughter the wolfs and the yoke they keep
and Christians and Turks they harshly domineer;
in land and sea the cross should shine,
and in justice let the enemy incline;
and let the world be saved from plagues such as that 125
and free to live like brothers in this land!